The RS-485 is a serial bus standard. It is an evolution of the RS-422 and like it, the RS-485 cable is composed of a twisted pair. We can form a point to point network linking up to 64 devices (32 transmitters and 32 receivers, this is the diference with the RS-422), and up to 1200 meters in length. It operates in differential mode on levels -6V and +6V and can reach speeds up to 10 Mbits/s. It can operate in half-duplex or full duplex with 4 wires.
The RS-422 is a standard for serial bus. It is newer than the RS-232 and more efficient. The RS-422 cable contains a twisted pair. We can form a point to point network linking up to 10 devices (1 driver and 10 receivers) and up to 1200 meters in length. It operates in differential mode on levels +6V -6V and can reach speeds up to 10Mb/s. It can operate in half-duplex or full duplex with 4 cables.
The RS-232 is a standard for serial bus. It operates in point to point mode with one transmitter and one receiver, up to 15 meters in length. It operates with voltages of -15V to -3V for logic 1 and +3V to +15V for logic 0 (typically -12V to +12 V) and can reach speeds of 20Kb/s.
The AK protocol define a communication protocol over serial RS-232 or TCP/IP connection between devices, typically between a PC and measuring instruments.
GPIB or IEEE 488 is the specification that defines a parallel bus of digital communication over short distances. It is widely used in industry or scientific research to test applications and able to control instruments (multimeters, oscilloscopes, spectrographs, power …).
Fieldpoint (cFP) and Compact Fieldpoint (cFP) are PAC (programmable automation controller) for command and control industrial applications. They come in the form of a backplane hardened, 4 to 8 slots, to connect modules: DIO, DAQ, relays, voltage or current outputs, Ethernet, serial and other protocols, blocks connections and programmable controllers.
DIO cards for Digital Inputs/Outputs, are used to acquire digitals signals, whose levels are typically 0-5V or 0-10V, 0-12V to 0-24V. The newest cards allow you to select the voltage ranges and use of high frequency switching.
They are often used to monitor a condition (eg whether a valve is open or closed) or send an order (order of opening or closing a relay).
Data acquisition cards are used to acquire electrical signals and convert them into digital data to allow software computation. These signals art images of a physical measurement such as, for example, pressure, temperature, speed or other electrical phenomena.
VAN, for Vehicle Area Network, is a communication bus between ECUs developed by PSA Peugeot Citroen and Renault.